Many different careers are involved in the creation of a pipeline. Each one of these careers uses science and technology.
A number of processes are important when considering how pipelines are built and the skills needed to build a pipeline.
Corrosion can cause pipelines to break down or deteriorate. Corrosion is the result of a chemical reaction between a metal and its surroundings during which the metal is oxidized and breaks down. This can be caused by the pipe coming in contact with chemical and physical aspects of the surrounding soil. By investigating these conditions, pipeline designers can decide how to prevent corrosion. Using two different methods, protective coatings or electrochemical protection, corrosion is prevented. Protective coatings provide a physical barrier between the pipe and the surrounding environment. Electrochemical protection connects the pipe to another metal that is more easily corroded than the pipe itself. This other metal draws away the electrochemical activity, protecting the pipe.
Welding is used to join sections of pipe together. Welders heat the ends of the pipe until they are at the melting point. A rod of metal is also heated and used to fill in the small gap between the pipes with molten metal. Once cooled, the metals are solid again and just as strong as the rest of the pipe. Many different techniques and energy sources can be used in welding depending on the types of metals being welded and the conditions under which the welding is done.
Reclamation is the process of returning disturbed land to a productive state. In order to understand the disturbance that building the pipeline causes, samples of soil are taken at the pipeline site and compared to those a distance away from the site. Physical, chemical and biological soil properties such as soil hardness, water retention and pH are measured. Using this information, the soil is returned to the same productive state as the nearby soil.